Integrating Eisner's Concepualization of Curriculum with the Four "I's" of Systematic Racism To Promote Anti-racist Praxis in Education and Beyond



anti-racist pedagogy, teacher education, curriculum, theory to practice, anti-racist praxis


This paper illustrates an example of how curriculum theory was interfaced with antiracist pedagogy in an undergraduate Introduction to Educational Studies course and in a graduate Curriculum Theories & Practice course. Specifically, we utilized Eisner’s (1994) curriculum framework of the explicit, implicit, and null in relation to the antiracist analytical framework of the 4I’s. Rooted in our teaching praxis, we describe how utilizing these frameworks together, in two different ways, allowed for a practical yet rigorous analysis of how White supremacy is both evident and diffused in day-to-day K-12 teaching. Finally, we offer ways for adapting and extending this framework pedagogically.

Author Biographies

Paul Madden, Connecticut College

Paul is a visiting assistant professor in Connecticut College’s Educational Studies Department. His research interests focus on curriculum evaluation in support of anti-colonial and anti-racist praxis, particuarly within mathematics education. He has over 10 years experience as a justice-oriented STEM instructional coach, non-profit leader, debate coach, anti-racist educator, and secondary mathematics teacher.

Anne Clarice Vera Cruz, Connecticut College

Anne is the current director of Connecticut College’s Academic Resource Center. Born, raised, and a citizen of the Philippines, she is multicultural and trilingual. She has over 10 years of experience as a curriculum specialist and theorist and has worked in a variety of social justice-based projects and contexts, locally and internationally.