Differences in gut microbiome composition among the Hadza population of Tanzania are driven by subsistence systems.
The gut microbiome is a critical part of human health and is sensitive to various biotic and abiotic factors. Elucidating the interactions between these factors and the microbiome is essential in understanding how microbial species impact human health. Different subsistence systems have been shown to be a major factor that influences the gut microbiome composition. This study aims to build upon these findings in the context of the non-industrialized Hadza population in Tanzania, who exist in groups of bush camps that rely on hunting-gathering and agricultural practices. Of eight select bush camps, groups who relied on agriculture showed greater relative abundance of Bacteoridetes and Firmicutes in their gut microbiomes at a higher Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio than their hunter-gatherer counterparts. While geographical distance was shown to have a weak correlative influence on differences between Hadza gut microbiomes, water source, age, and biological sex had no significant impact.