The Curriculum Implementation Using Equitable Pedagogical Practices in Primary Schools
Its Efficacy in Promoting the 21st Century Classrooms
Keywords:curriculum, diversity, equitable pedagogy, implementation, inclusive education, multiculturalism
The study examined curriculum implementation using equitable pedagogical practices in promoting cross-cutting issues in 21st century classrooms of five primary schools in Fitche town, Oromia Regional State. Qualitative research method with case study design was employed. 54 participants of the study were selected from five primary schools by using purposive sampling techniques. These were principals (4), teachers (14), supervisor (1), Vice academic dean of college of teacher education (1), grades 7 and 8 students (34) from Afan Oromo and Amahric mediums of instruction. The primary and secondary data were collected from the sources of data by using different data collection instruments. The textual and contextual data collected by using interview, focus group discussion, observation and document analysis were grouped into thematic units and narrated. The finding of the study showed that the opportunities of getting appropriate training and experience sharing practices on the application of equity pedagogical strategies were limited. Due to better access to modified instructional materials, Afan Oromo medium of instruction teachers were relatively giving better lessons than Amharic medium of instruction teachers due to small class size. This strategy best showed possible directions on how to construct knowledge from integration of curriculum contents and activities using equitable pedagogical practices. Thus, the right utilization of equitable pedagogical practices in teaching and learning process makes Fitche a prototypical home town where peoples live together on equal opportunities of educational practices. Best cross-cutting issues should be inclusively treated in the classrooms and school compounds. Therefore, key stakeholders should renovate the whole schools’ matrix to implement their respective curricula or disciplines by using equitable pedagogical practices to safeguard diversity and inclusive education.
ADEA, C. (2010). Policy guide on the integration of African languages and cultures into education systems. Presented at the African conference. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
Adam, H.; Barratt-Pugh, C. (2020). The Challenge of monoculturalism: What books are educators sharing with children and what messages do they send? Early Childhood Education, Australian Educational Researcher, 47 (5), 815-836.
Banks, J.A and Banks, CAM. (2007). Multicultural education: issues and perspectives (6th.Ed.). United States: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Banks, J. A. and Banks, CAM. (2001). Multicultural education: issues and perspectives (4th. Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Banks, J. A. and Banks, CAM. (1995b). Dimensions of multicultural education (2rd. Ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed Approaches (4th. Ed.). London: Sage Publisher Inc.
Davis-Lowe, E. (2006). Fostering STEM diversity. Report presented at OPAS Initiative. Available:http://opas.ous.edu/Committees/Resources/Staff_papers/Fostering_STEM_DiversityAccessed on December/2019.
Diller, J. V., Module, J. (2005). Cultural competence: A primer for educators. Toronto, CA: Thomson Wads worth publishers.
ETP (1994). New Education and Training Policy in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.
European Commission. (2015). Study on the diversity within the teaching profession with particular focus on migrant and/or minority background. Final report to education and culture of the European Commission.
Getachew, A, Derib, A. (2006). Language policy in Ethiopia: History and current trends. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences, 2 (1), 37-62.
Girma, M. and Abraham T. (2019). The practices of culturally responsive pedagogy in nexus to enhancing female students' academic performance in selected Colleges of Teachers Education. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 24 (2/5),52-64. www.iosrjournals.org DOI: 10.9790/0837-2402055264.
Girma M, Dawit, M. and Geberew, T. (2021). Contextualization of theory and practices of teachers’ effective professional development features in primary schools of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioral Science, 34 (11): 121-132.
Gurin, P.; Nagda BRA and Lopez, GE.(2004). The benefits of diversity in education for democratic citizenship. Journal of Social Issues, 60 (1), 17-34
Hickling-Hudson, A.and McMeniman, M. (1993). Curricular responses to multiculturalism: An overview of teacher education courses in Australia. Teaching and Teacher Education, 9 (3), 243-252.
Kosonen, Kimmo, Benson and Carol. (2013). Language issues in comparative education: inclusive teaching and learning in non-dominant languages and cultures. Rotterdam: Sense publishers (pp.1-16).
Justin, E.; Zachary, A. S. (2008). Globalization: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO, p. 35. ISBN 978-1-59884-073-5. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
Ladson-Billings, G. (1995b). Towards a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal. 32: 465-491.
Macedo, E. (2013). Equity and difference in centralized policy, elementary secondary education, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 45 (1), 28-38, Routledge. Taylor & Francis, Web site: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals.
Melluish, S. (2014). "Globalization, culture and psychology". International Review of Psychiatry (Abingdon, England). Informa UK Limited. 26 (5), 538-543.
Malik, K. (2015). "The Failure of Multiculturalism". Foreign Affairs.
Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mesay, K. Girma, M. and Solomon, W.(2019). Developmentally appropriateness of curriculum and integrated play-based pedagogical practices in early childhood care and education in Hawassa University Technology Woredas. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 24(8/9), 47-54. www.iosrjournals.org DOI: 10.9790/0837-
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2016). PISA 2015 Results (Volume I): Excellence and Equity in Education. Paris. Retrieved from https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-i_9789264266490-en.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2014). PISA 2012 Technical Report. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/PISA-2012-technical -report-final. pdf.
Ouane, Adama and Glanz. (2011). Optimizing learning, education and publishing in Africa: A review and analysis of theory and practice in mother-tongue and bilingual education in sub-Saharan Africa, Hamburg (pp.159-185).
Patton, M. C. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Penina M, et al. (2005). Gender responsive pedagogy. A teacher's handbook on forum for African women empowerment.
Schroeder, L. (2013). Teaching and assessing independent reading skills in multilingual African countries: Not as simple as ABC. Rotterdam: Sense Publisher (pp.245-264).
Sime, T. and Latchanna, G.(2016). Place of diversity in the current Ethiopian education and training policy: Analysis of cardinal dimensions. Educational Research and Reviews. 11(8), 582-588.
Tatto, M. T. (2021).Professionalism in teaching and the role of teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 44 (2), 20-44. Arizona State University.
Teferra, D. (1999). The politics of multilingual education and publishing in Ethiopia. Challenges and prospects, London Publisher(pp.75-110).
UNESCO (2013). Education in a multilingual world. UNESCO education position paper, Paris: UNESCO, Available:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001297/129728e.pdf, accessed on December/ 2019.
UNESCO (2012). Why language matters for the millennium development goals. Bangkok,Thailand: UNESCO, Available:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002152/215296E.pdf.Accessed on December/2019.
UNESCO (2010). International conference on language, education and the millennium development goals. Available:http://www.seameo.org/LanguageMDGConference2010/. Acessed on December/2019.
UNESCO (2009). Investing in cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue. UNESCO World Report. Paris: Available:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001852/185202E.pdf.Accessed on December/2019
UNESCO (2008). Improving the quality of mother tongue-based literacy and learning: Case studies from Asia, Africa and South America. Bangkok, Available:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0017/001777/177738e.pdf Accessed on December/2019
Yin, R. K. (2011). Qualitative research from start to finish. USA: The Guilford Press.